Sliman Bensmaia

Biosciences Graduate Program Association
  1. Osborn LE, Christie BP, McMullen DP, Nickl RW, Thompson MC, Pawar AS, Thomas TM, Alejandro Anaya M, Crone NE, Wester BA, Bensmaia SJ, Celnik PA, Cantarero GL, Tenore FV, Fifer MS. Intracortical microstimulation of somatosensory cortex enables object identification through perceived sensations. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2021 11; 2021:6259-6262. View in: PubMed

  2. Fifer MS, McMullen DP, Osborn LE, Thomas TM, Christie BP, Nickl RW, Candrea DN, Pohlmeyer EA, Thompson MC, Anaya MA, Schellekens W, Ramsey NF, Bensmaia SJ, Anderson WS, Wester BA, Crone NE, Celnik PA, Cantarero GL, Tenore FV. Intracortical Somatosensory Stimulation to Elicit Fingertip Sensations in an Individual With Spinal Cord Injury. Neurology. 2021 Dec 08. View in: PubMed

  3. Kumaravelu K, Sombeck J, Miller LE, Bensmaia SJ, Grill WM. Stoney vs. Histed: Quantifying the spatial effects of intracortical microstimulation. Brain Stimul. 2021 Nov 30; 15(1):141-151. View in: PubMed

  4. Suresh AK, Greenspon CM, He Q, Rosenow JM, Miller LE, Bensmaia SJ. Sensory computations in the cuneate nucleus of macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 12 07; 118(49). View in: PubMed

  5. Sobinov AR, Bensmaia SJ. The neural mechanisms of manual dexterity. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2021 12; 22(12):741-757. View in: PubMed

  6. Pandarinath C, Bensmaia SJ. The science and engineering behind sensitized brain-controlled bionic hands. Physiol Rev. 2022 Apr 01; 102(2):551-604. View in: PubMed

  7. Versteeg C, Rosenow JM, Bensmaia SJ, Miller LE. Encoding of limb state by single neurons in the cuneate nucleus of awake monkeys. J Neurophysiol. 2021 08 01; 126(2):693-706. View in: PubMed

  8. McMullen DP, Thomas TM, Fifer MS, Candrea DN, Tenore FV, Nickl RW, Pohlmeyer EA, Coogan C, Osborn LE, Schiavi A, Wojtasiewicz T, Gordon CR, Cohen AB, Ramsey NF, Schellekens W, Bensmaia SJ, Cantarero GL, Celnik PA, Wester BA, Anderson WS, Crone NE. Novel intraoperative online functional mapping of somatosensory finger representations for targeted stimulating electrode placement: technical note. J Neurosurg. 2021 Mar 26; 1-8. View in: PubMed

  9. O'Connor DH, Krubitzer L, Bensmaia S. Of mice and monkeys: Somatosensory processing in two prominent animal models. Prog Neurobiol. 2021 06; 201:102008. View in: PubMed

  10. Ortiz-Catalan M, Mastinu E, Greenspon CM, Bensmaia SJ. Chronic Use of a Sensitized Bionic Hand Does Not Remap the Sense of Touch. Cell Rep. 2020 12 22; 33(12):108539. View in: PubMed

  11. Liu M, Batista A, Bensmaia S, Weber DJ. Information about contact force and surface texture is mixed in the firing rates of cutaneous afferent neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2021 02 01; 125(2):496-508. View in: PubMed

  12. Bensmaia SJ, Tyler DJ, Micera S. Restoration of sensory information via bionic hands. Nat Biomed Eng. 2020 Nov 23. View in: PubMed

  13. Suresh AK, Goodman JM, Okorokova EV, Kaufman M, Hatsopoulos NG, Bensmaia SJ. Neural population dynamics in motor cortex are different for reach and grasp. Elife. 2020 11 17; 9. View in: PubMed

  14. George JA, Kluger DT, Davis TS, Wendelken SM, Okorokova EV, He Q, Duncan CC, Hutchinson DT, Thumser ZC, Beckler DT, Marasco PD, Bensmaia SJ, Clark GA. Biomimetic sensory feedback through peripheral nerve stimulation improves dexterous use of a bionic hand. Sci Robot. 2019 Jul 24; 4(32). View in: PubMed

  15. George JA, Brinton MR, Colgan PC, Colvin GK, Bensmaia SJ, Clark GA. Intensity Discriminability of Electrocutaneous and Intraneural Stimulation Pulse Frequency in Intact Individuals and Amputees. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2020 07; 2020:3893-3896. View in: PubMed

  16. Kumaravelu K, Tomlinson T, Callier T, Sombeck J, Bensmaia SJ, Miller LE, Grill WM. A comprehensive model-based framework for optimal design of biomimetic patterns of electrical stimulation for prosthetic sensation. J Neural Eng. 2020 09 18; 17(4):046045. View in: PubMed

  17. Yan Y, Goodman JM, Moore DD, Solla SA, Bensmaia SJ. Unexpected complexity of everyday manual behaviors. Nat Commun. 2020 07 16; 11(1):3564. View in: PubMed

  18. Greenspon CM, McLellan KR, Lieber JD, Bensmaia SJ. Effect of scanning speed on texture-elicited vibrations. J R Soc Interface. 2020 06; 17(167):20190892. View in: PubMed

  19. Lindau ST, Bensmaia SJ. Using Bionics to Restore Sensation to Reconstructed Breasts. Front Neurorobot. 2020; 14:24. View in: PubMed

  20. Okorokova EV, Goodman JM, Hatsopoulos NG, Bensmaia SJ. Decoding hand kinematics from population responses in sensorimotor cortex during grasping. J Neural Eng. 2020 08 17; 17(4):046035. View in: PubMed

  21. Callier T, Brantly NW, Caravelli A, Bensmaia SJ. The frequency of cortical microstimulation shapes artificial touch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 01 14; 117(2):1191-1200. View in: PubMed

  22. Lieber JD, Bensmaia SJ. Emergence of an Invariant Representation of Texture in Primate Somatosensory Cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2020 05 14; 30(5):3228-3239. View in: PubMed

  23. Goodman JM, Tabot GA, Lee AS, Suresh AK, Rajan AT, Hatsopoulos NG, Bensmaia S. Postural Representations of the Hand in the Primate Sensorimotor Cortex. Neuron. 2019 12 04; 104(5):1000-1009.e7. View in: PubMed

  24. Prendergast B, Brooks J, Goodman JM, Boyarinova M, Winberry JE, Bensmaia SJ. Finger Posture and Finger Load are Perceived Independently. Sci Rep. 2019 10 21; 9(1):15031. View in: PubMed

  25. Delhaye BP, O'Donnell MK, Lieber JD, McLellan KR, Bensmaia SJ. Feeling fooled: Texture contaminates the neural code for tactile speed. PLoS Biol. 2019 08; 17(8):e3000431. View in: PubMed

  26. Delhaye BP, Xia X, Bensmaia SJ. Rapid geometric feature signaling in the simulated spiking activity of a complete population of tactile nerve fibers. J Neurophysiol. 2019 06 01; 121(6):2071-2082. View in: PubMed

  27. Lieber JD, Bensmaia SJ. High-dimensional representation of texture in somatosensory cortex of primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 02 19; 116(8):3268-3277. View in: PubMed

  28. Callier T, Suresh AK, Bensmaia SJ. Neural Coding of Contact Events in Somatosensory Cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2019 12 17; 29(11):4613-4627. View in: PubMed

  29. Okorokova EV, He Q, Bensmaia SJ. Biomimetic encoding model for restoring touch in bionic hands through a nerve interface. J Neural Eng. 2018 12; 15(6):066033. View in: PubMed

  30. Delhaye BP, Long KH, Bensmaia SJ. Neural Basis of Touch and Proprioception in Primate Cortex. Compr Physiol. 2018 09 14; 8(4):1575-1602. View in: PubMed

  31. Graczyk EL, Delhaye BP, Schiefer MA, Bensmaia SJ, Tyler DJ. Sensory adaptation to electrical stimulation of the somatosensory nerves. J Neural Eng. 2018 08; 15(4):046002. View in: PubMed

  32. Suresh AK, Winberry JE, Versteeg C, Chowdhury R, Tomlinson T, Rosenow JM, Miller LE, Bensmaia SJ. Methodological considerations for a chronic neural interface with the cuneate nucleus of macaques. J Neurophysiol. 2017 12 01; 118(6):3271-3281. View in: PubMed

  33. Lieber JD, Xia X, Weber AI, Bensmaia SJ. The neural code for tactile roughness in the somatosensory nerves. J Neurophysiol. 2017 12 01; 118(6):3107-3117. View in: PubMed

  34. Saal HP, Suresh AK, Solorzano LE, Weber AI, Bensmaia SJ. The Effect of Contact Force on the Responses of Tactile Nerve Fibers to Scanned Textures. Neuroscience. 2018 10 01; 389:99-103. View in: PubMed

  35. Boundy-Singer ZM, Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Speed invariance of tactile texture perception. J Neurophysiol. 2017 10 01; 118(4):2371-2377. View in: PubMed

  36. Saal HP, Delhaye BP, Rayhaun BC, Bensmaia SJ. Simulating tactile signals from the whole hand with millisecond precision. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 07 11; 114(28):E5693-E5702. View in: PubMed

  37. Goodman JM, Bensmaia SJ. A Variation Code Accounts for the Perceived Roughness of Coarsely Textured Surfaces. Sci Rep. 2017 04 25; 7:46699. View in: PubMed

  38. Makin TR, Bensmaia SJ. Stability of Sensory Topographies in Adult Cortex. Trends Cogn Sci. 2017 03; 21(3):195-204. View in: PubMed

  39. Delhaye BP, Schluter EW, Bensmaia SJ. Robo-Psychophysics: Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Features from the Output of Sensors on a Prosthetic Finger. IEEE Trans Haptics. 2016 Oct-Dec; 9(4):499-507. View in: PubMed

  40. Kim S, Callier T, Bensmaia SJ. A computational model that predicts behavioral sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation. J Neural Eng. 2017 02; 14(1):016012. View in: PubMed

  41. Delhaye BP, Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Key considerations in designing a somatosensory neuroprosthesis. J Physiol Paris. 2016 11; 110(4 Pt A):402-408. View in: PubMed

  42. Graczyk EL, Schiefer MA, Saal HP, Delhaye BP, Bensmaia SJ, Tyler DJ. The neural basis of perceived intensity in natural and artificial touch. Sci Transl Med. 2016 10 26; 8(362):362ra142. View in: PubMed

  43. Flesher SN, Collinger JL, Foldes ST, Weiss JM, Downey JE, Tyler-Kabara EC, Bensmaia SJ, Schwartz AB, Boninger ML, Gaunt RA. Intracortical microstimulation of human somatosensory cortex. Sci Transl Med. 2016 10 19; 8(361):361ra141. View in: PubMed

  44. Suresh AK, Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Edge orientation signals in tactile afferents of macaques. J Neurophysiol. 2016 12 01; 116(6):2647-2655. View in: PubMed

  45. Saal HP, Wang X, Bensmaia SJ. Importance of spike timing in touch: an analogy with hearing? Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2016 10; 40:142-149. View in: PubMed

  46. Saal HP, Harvey MA, Bensmaia SJ. Rate and timing of cortical responses driven by separate sensory channels. Elife. 2015 Dec 09; 4:e10450. View in: PubMed

  47. Yau JM, Kim SS, Thakur PH, Bensmaia SJ. Feeling form: the neural basis of haptic shape perception. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Feb 01; 115(2):631-42. View in: PubMed

  48. Cho Y, Craig JC, Hsiao SS, Bensmaia SJ. Vision is superior to touch in shape perception even with equivalent peripheral input. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Jan 01; 115(1):92-9. View in: PubMed

  49. Kim S, Callier T, Tabot GA, Gaunt RA, Tenore FV, Bensmaia SJ. Behavioral assessment of sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation of primate somatosensory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Dec 08; 112(49):15202-7. View in: PubMed

  50. Rajan AT, Boback JL, Dammann JF, Tenore FV, Wester BA, Otto KJ, Gaunt RA, Bensmaia SJ. The effects of chronic intracortical microstimulation on neural tissue and fine motor behavior. J Neural Eng. 2015 Dec; 12(6):066018. View in: PubMed

  51. Pack CC, Bensmaia SJ. Seeing and Feeling Motion: Canonical Computations in Vision and Touch. PLoS Biol. 2015; 13(9):e1002271. View in: PubMed

  52. Callier T, Schluter EW, Tabot GA, Miller LE, Tenore FV, Bensmaia SJ. Long-term stability of sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation of somatosensory cortex. J Neural Eng. 2015 Oct; 12(5):056010. View in: PubMed

  53. Bensmaia SJ. Biological and bionic hands: natural neural coding and artificial perception. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Sep 19; 370(1677):20140209. View in: PubMed

  54. Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface. Neuropsychologia. 2015 Dec; 79(Pt B):344-53. View in: PubMed

  55. Kim S, Callier T, Tabot GA, Tenore FV, Bensmaia SJ. Sensitivity to microstimulation of somatosensory cortex distributed over multiple electrodes. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015; 9:47. View in: PubMed

  56. Bensmaia SJ, DiCarlo JJ. Steven Hsiao: in memoriam. Neuron. 2015 Feb 04; 85(3):458-61. View in: PubMed

  57. Callier T, Saal HP, Davis-Berg EC, Bensmaia SJ. Kinematics of unconstrained tactile texture exploration. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Apr 01; 113(7):3013-20. View in: PubMed

  58. Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Touch is a team effort: interplay of submodalities in cutaneous sensibility. Trends Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 37(12):689-97. View in: PubMed

  59. Pei YC, Bensmaia SJ. The neural basis of tactile motion perception. J Neurophysiol. 2014 Dec 15; 112(12):3023-32. View in: PubMed

  60. Tabot GA, Kim SS, Winberry JE, Bensmaia SJ. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Nov; 83:191-8. View in: PubMed

  61. Bensmaia SJ, Miller LE. Restoring sensorimotor function through intracortical interfaces: progress and looming challenges. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 May; 15(5):313-25. View in: PubMed

  62. Manfredi LR, Saal HP, Brown KJ, Zielinski MC, Dammann JF, Polashock VS, Bensmaia SJ. Natural scenes in tactile texture. J Neurophysiol. 2014 May; 111(9):1792-802. View in: PubMed

  63. Chen KH, Dammann JF, Boback JL, Tenore FV, Otto KJ, Gaunt RA, Bensmaia SJ. The effect of chronic intracortical microstimulation on the electrode-tissue interface. J Neural Eng. 2014 Apr; 11(2):026004. View in: PubMed

  64. Pei YC, Lee TC, Chang TY, Ruffatto D, Spenko M, Bensmaia S. A multi-digit tactile motion stimulator. J Neurosci Methods. 2014 Apr 15; 226:80-87. View in: PubMed

  65. Zaidi Q, Victor J, McDermott J, Geffen M, Bensmaia S, Cleland TA. Perceptual spaces: mathematical structures to neural mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2013 Nov 06; 33(45):17597-602. View in: PubMed

  66. Tabot GA, Dammann JF, Berg JA, Tenore FV, Boback JL, Vogelstein RJ, Bensmaia SJ. Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 05; 110(45):18279-84. View in: PubMed

  67. Weber AI, Saal HP, Lieber JD, Cheng JW, Manfredi LR, Dammann JF, Bensmaia SJ. Spatial and temporal codes mediate the tactile perception of natural textures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 15; 110(42):17107-12. View in: PubMed

  68. Conveying tactile feedback in sensorized hand neuroprostheses using a biofidelic model of mechanotransduction. IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2009 Dec; 3(6):398-404. View in: PubMed

  69. Harvey MA, Saal HP, Dammann JF, Bensmaia SJ. Multiplexing stimulus information through rate and temporal codes in primate somatosensory cortex. PLoS Biol. 2013; 11(5):e1001558. View in: PubMed

  70. Cheng JW, Weber AI, Bensmaia SJ. Comparing the effects of isoflurane and pentobarbital on the responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents. BMC Anesthesiol. 2013 May 10; 13:10. View in: PubMed

  71. Berg JA, Dammann JF, Tenore FV, Tabot GA, Boback JL, Manfredi LR, Peterson ML, Katyal KD, Johannes MS, Makhlin A, Wilcox R, Franklin RK, Vogelstein RJ, Hatsopoulos NG, Bensmaia SJ. Behavioral demonstration of a somatosensory neuroprosthesis. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 May; 21(3):500-7. View in: PubMed

  72. Dong Y, Mihalas S, Kim SS, Yoshioka T, Bensmaia S, Niebur E. A simple model of mechanotransduction in primate glabrous skin. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Mar; 109(5):1350-9. View in: PubMed

  73. Mackevicius EL, Best MD, Saal HP, Bensmaia SJ. Millisecond precision spike timing shapes tactile perception. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 31; 32(44):15309-17. View in: PubMed

  74. Manfredi LR, Baker AT, Elias DO, Dammann JF, Zielinski MC, Polashock VS, Bensmaia SJ. The effect of surface wave propagation on neural responses to vibration in primate glabrous skin. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31203. View in: PubMed

  75. Yau JM, Weber AI, Bensmaia SJ. Separate mechanisms for audio-tactile pitch and loudness interactions. Front Psychol. 2010; 1:160. View in: PubMed

  76. Kim SS, Mihalas S, Russell A, Dong Y, Bensmaia SJ. Does afferent heterogeneity matter in conveying tactile feedback through peripheral nerve stimulation? IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011 Oct; 19(5):514-20. View in: PubMed

  77. Pei YC, Hsiao SS, Craig JC, Bensmaia SJ. Neural mechanisms of tactile motion integration in somatosensory cortex. Neuron. 2011 Feb 10; 69(3):536-47. View in: PubMed

  78. Kim SS, Sripati AP, Bensmaia SJ. Predicting the timing of spikes evoked by tactile stimulation of the hand. J Neurophysiol. 2010 Sep; 104(3):1484-96. View in: PubMed

  79. Pei YC, Hsiao SS, Craig JC, Bensmaia SJ. Shape invariant coding of motion direction in somatosensory cortex. PLoS Biol. 2010 Feb 02; 8(2):e1000305. View in: PubMed

  80. Russell AF, Armiger RS, Vogelstein RJ, Bensmaia SJ, Etienne-Cummings R. Real-time implementation of biofidelic SA1 model for tactile feedback. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009; 2009:185-8. View in: PubMed

  81. Yau JM, Hollins M, Bensmaia SJ. Textural timbre: The perception of surface microtexture depends in part on multimodal spectral cues. Commun Integr Biol. 2009 Jul; 2(4):344-6. View in: PubMed

  82. Pei YC, Denchev PV, Hsiao SS, Craig JC, Bensmaia SJ. Convergence of submodality-specific input onto neurons in primary somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Sep; 102(3):1843-53. View in: PubMed

  83. Yau JM, Olenczak JB, Dammann JF, Bensmaia SJ. Temporal frequency channels are linked across audition and touch. Curr Biol. 2009 Apr 14; 19(7):561-6. View in: PubMed

  84. Pei YC, Hsiao SS, Bensmaia SJ. The tactile integration of local motion cues is analogous to its visual counterpart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 10; 105(23):8130-5. View in: PubMed

  85. Craig JC, Rhodes RP, Gibson GO, Bensmaia SJ. Discriminating smooth from grooved surfaces: effects of random variations in skin penetration. Exp Brain Res. 2008 Jul; 188(3):331-40. View in: PubMed

  86. Bensmaia SJ. Tactile intensity and population codes. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Jul 19; 190(2):165-73. View in: PubMed

  87. Bensmaia SJ, Hsiao SS, Denchev PV, Killebrew JH, Craig JC. The tactile perception of stimulus orientation. Somatosens Mot Res. 2008 Mar; 25(1):49-59. View in: PubMed

  88. Bensmaia SJ, Denchev PV, Dammann JF, Craig JC, Hsiao SS. The representation of stimulus orientation in the early stages of somatosensory processing. J Neurosci. 2008 Jan 16; 28(3):776-86. View in: PubMed

  89. Hollins M, Bensmaïa SJ. The coding of roughness. Can J Exp Psychol. 2007 Sep; 61(3):184-95. View in: PubMed

  90. Muniak MA, Ray S, Hsiao SS, Dammann JF, Bensmaia SJ. The neural coding of stimulus intensity: linking the population response of mechanoreceptive afferents with psychophysical behavior. J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 24; 27(43):11687-99. View in: PubMed

  91. Yoshioka T, Bensmaïa SJ, Craig JC, Hsiao SS. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: an analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration. Somatosens Mot Res. 2007 Mar-Jun; 24(1-2):53-70. View in: PubMed

  92. Killebrew JH, Bensmaïa SJ, Dammann JF, Denchev P, Hsiao SS, Craig JC, Johnson KO. A dense array stimulator to generate arbitrary spatio-temporal tactile stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Mar 30; 161(1):62-74. View in: PubMed

  93. Bensmaïa SJ, Killebrew JH, Craig JC. Influence of visual motion on tactile motion perception. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Sep; 96(3):1625-37. View in: PubMed

  94. Sripati AP, Bensmaia SJ, Johnson KO. A continuum mechanical model of mechanoreceptive afferent responses to indented spatial patterns. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Jun; 95(6):3852-64. View in: PubMed

  95. Bensmaïa SJ, Craig JC, Yoshioka T, Johnson KO. SA1 and RA afferent responses to static and vibrating gratings. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Mar; 95(3):1771-82. View in: PubMed

  96. Bensmaïa SJ, Craig JC, Johnson KO. Temporal factors in tactile spatial acuity: evidence for RA interference in fine spatial processing. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Mar; 95(3):1783-91. View in: PubMed

  97. Leung YY, Bensmaïa SJ, Hsiao SS, Johnson KO. Time-course of vibratory adaptation and recovery in cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Nov; 94(5):3037-45. View in: PubMed

  98. Bensmaïa SJ, Leung YY, Hsiao SS, Johnson KO. Vibratory adaptation of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Nov; 94(5):3023-36. View in: PubMed

  99. BensmaIa SJ, Hollins M. The vibrations of texture. Somatosens Mot Res. 2003; 20(1):33-43. View in: PubMed

  100. Hollins M, Bensmaïa SJ, Roy EA. Vibrotaction and texture perception. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Sep 20; 135(1-2):51-6. View in: PubMed

  101. Hollins M, Bensmaïa SJ, Washburn S. Vibrotactile adaptation impairs discrimination of fine, but not coarse, textures. Somatosens Mot Res. 2001; 18(4):253-62. View in: PubMed

  102. Bensmaïa SJ, Hollins M. Complex tactile waveform discrimination. J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Sep; 108(3 Pt 1):1236-45. View in: PubMed